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The Grain of Rice

Image2: Rice grain

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
  Division: Magnoliophyta
   Class: Liliopsida
    Order: Poales
     Family: Poaceae
      Genus: Oryza
       Species: O. glaberrima, O.  sativa

Rice is an annual plant, which means it completes its entire life cycle within a year. Rice can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. Rice plants start their life as tiny rice grains sown in irrigated fields, and grow to become green, grassy plants about one meter tall. Each plant contains many heads full of tiny rice grains which turn golden when the rice plant is ready to harvest.

Preparation as food
To get from paddy to rice needed to pass through several steps:

1. Drying
2. Cleaning
3. Dehusking
4. Husk Separation
5. Paddy Separation
6. Deston
7.  Whitening
8.  Polishing
9.  Final Separation
10. Grading
11. Packing


Rice products

Rice is the most important part of the human diet. Domesticated rice comprises two species of food crops in the Poaceae ("true grass") family, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical southern Asia and southeastern Africa. Some popular processed rice products are listed below, while a list of popular rice dishes can be found here.

Rice Cakes

Ingredients required:

  • 1/2 lb. of ground rice
  • 1/2 lb. of flour
  • 1/2 lb. of loaf sugar
  • 9 eggs
  • 20 drops of essence of lemon/the rind of 1 lemon

1/4 lb. of butterSeparate the whites from the yolks of the eggs; whisk them both well, and add to the latter the butter beaten to a cream. Stir in the flour, rice, and lemon (if the rind is used, it must be very finely minced), and beat the mixture well; then add the whites of the eggs, beat the cake again for some time, put it into a buttered mould or tin, and bake it for nearly 1-1/2 hour. It may be flavoured with essence of almonds, when this is preferred.


Rice Wine (sake or nihonshu)

Rice wine is commonly known as sake, which is actually the general term for "alcohol" in Japanese.

Fermentation of Rice Wine

Ingredients required:

  • glutinous rice
  • water
  • bubod
  • activated carbon/bentonite


  • Weigh 1 kg of glutinous rice and wash through with water three times.
  • Drain and add 1.5 litres of water.
  • Cook in a rice cooker until well done. Let it cool.
  • Spread the cooked rice on a tray and inoculate with powdered bubod (rice yeast) at 1g per 100g of raw rice.
  • Cover the tray with a piece of paper or cloth and incubate at room temperature for two days.
  • Transfer to a fermentation jar with a water seal to allow the rice to ferment for two weeks, or until the bubbling stops.
  • Press out the alcoholic juice through a cheesecloth and discard the residue.
  • Pasteurise the freshly harvested wine at 65-70oC for 30 minutes.
  • Allow it to stand for one to three months in a dark, cool place to prevent discolouration.
  • Siphon the clear wine. If the wine is not yet clear, add one spoon of activated carbon or bentonite for every litre of wine. Mix well and filter.
  • Bottle the wine and pasteurise at 65-70oC for 20 minutes. Approximately 1 litre, or 3 bottles at 350ml, can be harvested from 1 kg of rice.
Rice Flour

Image2: Rice FlourRice flour is Produced by milling broken or milled rice. Finely ground rice flour is widely used in infant foods and in noodles. It is not used in bread because it lacks the necessary gluten-forming protein.  To make the flour, the husk of rice or paddy is removed and raw rice is obtained. The raw rice is then ground to form rice powder, also known as rice flour. The rice flour is used in making neer dosa, golibaje (Mangalore bajji), and rotti. The flour is mixed with flours of wheat, millet, and other cereals to make manni, a kind of baby food. Sometimes cut dried fruits or dried vegetables are added for flavour and more nutrients. Rice flour is used in various sweets (wagashi) and rice crackers (sembei).


Rice Vinegar

Rice is also used to produce vinegar, which in turn can be used as any other type of vinegar, for example, in salads or for preparing sushi rice.

Image3: Rice VinegarTypes of Rice Vinegar
  • Black Rice Vinegar: Black rice vinegar is made with black glutinous rice (also called "sweet rice"), although millet or sorghum may be used instead. It is dark in colour, and has a deep, almost smoky flavour.
  • Red Rice Vinegar: Red rice vinegar is darker than white rice vinegar, and paler than black rice vinegar, with a distinctive red colour from Red yeast rice .
  • White Rice Vinegar: White rice vinegar is a colourless to pale yellow liquid, higher in vinegar content and more similar to Western vinegars, but still less acidic and milder in flavour.


Ground Rice Pudding

Ingredients required:

  • ½ cup ground rice
  • 3 cups milk
  • 3 eggs
  • 4 tablespoons sugar
  • Rind½ lemon
  • 2 tablespoons vegetable shortening
  • ¼ cup Sultana raisins
  • Brown breadcrumbs


  • Boil milk slowly, sprinkle in ground rice, boil 6 minutes.
  • Remove add sugar and vegetable shortening.
  • Mix well, cool a little, add eggs well beaten, stir and flavor with grated lemon rind.
  • Vegetable shortening plain mold, dust with toasted bread-crumbs.
  • Pour in pudding.
  • Bake 1 hour in moderate oven.
  • Serve with following sauce: 1 small lemon, 1 cup water, 1 teaspoon cornstarch, 1 tablespoon sugar, and few drops red color.
  • Put cornstarch into pan with lemon juice, add other ingredients and bring to boil.