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Fossil Seeds

Image5: Fossil seedsGlossopteris, an important plant in widespread Permian floras of the Southern Hemisphere, was a seed plant. Glossopteris, the genus from which the group gets its name, is also the largest and best-known member of the Glossopteridales. More than 70 species of this genus have been recognized in India alone, with additional species from South America, Australia, Africa, and Antarctica.


Image6: Cycas circinalisLiving Cycads are found in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of both the north and south hemispheres. There are about 305 described species, in 10–12 genera and 2–3 families of Cycads. Cycads are basically woody plants which have roots, a stem, leaves and reproductive structures known as cones. They are frequently confused with palms or ferns, but they are an ancient group of seed plants.

Plant fossils

Image2b: Fossil of AraucariaPlants are often preserved as fossils.  Such fossils may be prehistoric impressions that are many millions of years old, or bits of charcoal that are only a few hundred years old. Prehistoric plants are various groups of plants that lived before recorded history (before about 3500 BC).