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Litchi stem-end borer (Conopomorpha sinensis)

Image of Litchi stem-end borer (Conopomorpha sinensis)

Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Gracillariidae
Subfamily: Gracillariinae
Genus: Conopomorpha

Major insect pests of lychee are lychee stem-end borer (Conopomorpha sinensis), lychee mid vein borer (C. litchiella), aphid (Aphis gossypii and Toxopleura sp.), lychee stink bug (Tessaratoma papillosa), small green beetle (Platymycterus sieversi) and lychee erinose mite (Eriophyes litchi). Diseases of high economic importance are: lychee sudden death (Pythium sp. and Fusarium solani), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosprioides) and lychee brown blight (Peronophthora litchi).

Good orchard management through the use of biological control, and eradication practices such as the use of pheromone and protein bait against lychee stem end borer and fruit fly, in combination with rational use of fungicide to control brown blight anthracnose are some of the key techniques for their control.